The Sumerian civilization was the most advanced civilization of ancient times. The Sumerian people were so advanced to invest great things for generations to come. It is amazing we still use their creations as of today. Sumerian people also came up with the first ever writing language. This language is known as Cuneiform. Cuneiform was developed back to 3200 BC. It was a simple language which used some wedge-shaped symbols. After the invention of this language, plenty of other languages were also founded. All of the developed languages were based on Cuneiform language.
Sumerian people also invented various other plenty of tools and machines. Their inventions brought revolution in the history of human. Different types of tools used in agriculture, architecture and other fields. There were a lot of Sumerian inventions which were used by other civilizations. Today we can say that there are a ton of things which originated from the Sumer region. Now, we will talk about some of those greatest inventions in details.
The Sumerian people were very much involved in games, toys, and recreation. They invented a lot of games which were usually played using stones, clay, and wood. Today, we play different types of board games. The first ever board game was invented by the Sumerian civilization. It consists of three to five small boards with patterns and colors. With this board, several dice were used to play the game.
Sumerian people also designed the toys including spinning tops, hoops, bows and arrows. Both children and adults played games with toys. They liked the games and toys which made sounds like the button buzz game which you can still play. It was played by using a clay ring and a rope. So, we can say that the Sumerian people invented most of the recreation tools we use today. Today those games are not present in their original form. Yet we have learned a lot from Sumerian civilization in the field of games and toys. After Sumerian people, different other cultures used the same toys and games for a long time.
Sumerian people also started literature. Scientists have found a lot of evidence of writing which was invented in the Sumer region. After the invention of cuneiform, the Sumerian people started writing about different things. They also developed some other similar languages which created complete literature. Their first language only consisted of specific types of symbols. However, later on, they invented complete words which they used for writing. Essays, writing contexts, and stories have been found in different regions. The Sumerian people wrote a lot of stories and contexts. All these things used to write on clay tablets and stones.
Sumerian people wrote about almost every field of life. From nature to livings, they wrote about everything. It was their history and literature work which they left for other civilizations. After the Sumerian civilization, other people used their invented things and literature. Today their developed languages and documentation are available in advanced form.
The spinning wheel was invented back to 3200 BC by the Sumerian civilization. This was a revolutionary invention which changed everything in the human life. Spinning wheel changed the means of transport to a new level. Before the invention of the wheel, Sumerian people were using animals for traveling. Animals like horse and donkey were surely used, but they were very slow.
When they had to move from one place to another, they used to take some food and clothes with them. It was because the traveling on animals used to take several weeks. However, after the invention of the spinning wheel, the chariot was invented. Then it became the best way of traveling. The first spinning wheel was made of wood. The spinning wheel also used in machines and other fields of life. Later on, other civilizations also used the wheel in their daily lives. Today, we have wheels which are involved almost everywhere. It tells us how advanced and intelligent were the Sumerian people.
Sailboats were also invented by the Sumerian people. After the great success of wheel, they started thinking about something to move on water. At that time, they had a tone of ways to move on land. They had different types of chariots which were pulled by various animals. On the other hand, they had some simple planes connected to some spinning wheels. Those were used to move speedily from one place to another.
Now, it was time to make something to travel on water. Sumerian people used some wood pieces and attached them to another to form a sailboat. The first sailboat was very simple and only contained small space. Later on, they made huge sailboats even used for battles. These sailboats were used to move on water. Today, the boats and ships are the advanced forms of those sailboats. So, we can say that the credit for moving on water goes to the Sumerian civilization.
The Sumerian people invented a primary form of time. It consisted of basic number system which revolved around the number 60. This was also a great invention which made a lot of changes in man’s life.
In Sumerian civilization, they were so many advantages of using time. In older times, people used sunset and sunrise to figure out their daily routines. They were not aware of time and how to use it. This was a great problem because of the weather difference which impacted the time. In summer, we have longer days and shorter nights and the opposite in winters. The same was also true for everyone before Sumerian civilization. So, using only the Sun to set different things was not so good. The Sumerian people then invented time which other civilizations used as well. Now you can easily consider how tough it would be if they had not invented time.
Sumerian people also invented soap. It has been using for thousands of years till today. Sumerian people thought about a substance to clean the dirty clothes and other stuff. It was hard to make such thing at that time but Sumerian people did it. They mixed wood ash and animal fats to make a brownish substance. This substance was useful in cleaning and removing dirt from the clothes.
Today, we can study the history of Sumer and its surroundings like Mesopotamia. We come to know that Sumerian people used soap in different industries. It was invented back to 2700 BC when there was nothing available to clean dirty things. After the Sumerian civilization, different other civilizations used soap. They used soap in different industries, especially in the textile industry. It was a great invention that we are still using it today.
The Sumerian people also invented the first ever number system. Around 2500 BC ago, they have enough resources for exchanging good and materials. They exchanged the good with other civilizations. They used different methods to trade goods. Also, the import and export system was introduced at a low level to run the mode of life. Meanwhile, Sumerian civilization introduced the taxation system. They introduced it to run the state. There was a need to keep the record to manage all of these systems, exchanging of goods, and import/export. It was crucial for larger exchanges and purchases. That couldn’t be done without the number system.
Sumerian people introduced a simple number system for these purposes. This was based on different symbols which were based on the numbers from one to 60. These symbols were then used for the rest of the counting. It is the same number system which was used to invent time. This system was a great invention. All other civilizations of that time used that number system as well as the ones which came later.
Sumerian people had a lot of information about Astrology. They observed the sky and its elements in detail. They formed different perspectives and theories. They also discovered five planets which were visible by naked eye. By discovering the planets, they started searching and observing the sky in detail. Not just this, they formed a calendar which was based on an astrological system. That calendar had 12 months of which each month was started on the first appearance of the new moon.
Besides all of this work, they presented some theories about stars and planets. They knew the moments of the planets and connection between them. The theories presented by Sumerian civilizations were so valid. Today we can say that some of those are still used in the modern astrology.
Another great invention of Sumerian people was a metal fabrication. They used metal in different ways and for the development of different tools. However, the proper manufacturing of metals started around 3500 BC ago. Sumerian people started fabrication to make some simple tools. They also made some small machines by using metal fabrication. The most used metal by Sumerian civilization was copper.
The fabrication resulted in the creation of most used tools. These include arrowheads, razors, and small knives. All these things were used in the daily lives as well as in war and fights. Moreover, they made some home-based stuff like jugs, water vessels, and dishes. The tools and design pieces were famous all around the world. After the Sumerian civilization, people adopted the Sumerian ways of fabrication. They made some fantastic stuff from different metals.
Monarchy is a leadership system in which a group of people rules a specific part of the land. They decide the problems of the people. The group of people is only responsible for the people who are living in their ruled land. The Sumerian people first introduced this system. Around 2600BC ago, people started fighting with each other. Every day there was a new dispute between them. There were a lot of problems due to the limited resources. Everyone wanted to live a happy life, but the resources were very limited. This was the thing which made Sumerian people fight against each other.
After judging the situation, some intelligent people invented a judicial system. It is currently known as the monarchy. This was a simple yet powerful system. Sumerian people chose some individuals to take the decisions for everyone. Relatives or friends or family member did not influence them. Their job was to make the decision which was based on the set of rules and law. The monarch position was believed to be the most powerful position of those times. In different times, different monarchs ruled the Sumerian region. All of them invented new rules and terms to make the society more peaceful and happier.
Sumerian people invented different types of weapons for their protection. Those weapons were used for different purposes. The most used weapons were axe, bow, and arrow. They had to hunt animals to feed people. Their concern was to protect their nation from other civilizations. For these purposes, they used different weapons. There was a time when different civilizations started attacking them to kill them. Then Sumerian people invented some heavy weapons which was very powerful. The mostly used weapon was a socketed axe.
With these weapons, they felt protected from other civilizations. Teams have found various types of firearms in the Sumerian region. These firearms are now in the surroundings of Iraq. Their weapons were as necessary as hunting was required for food. Thus, we can say that the Sumerian civilization gave us the concept of weapons. They invented a lot of weapons. Many other civilizations used the same weapons to protect themselves. Some of their invented weapons are still in use in different regions of the world.
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